Features of planting and caring for an apple Winter banana
If you are looking for an unpretentious apple tree, which is highly resistant to diseases and high-quality fruits of long-term storage, for growing on your own plot, attention should be paid to a variety such as Winter Banana. Read more about it - read below.
The variety under consideration is especially valuable for high-quality fruits. They are flat-round or oblong-conical in shape. The peel is medium density, painted in a light yellow color with a cover red-pink blush. Subcutaneous points are pronounced. The flesh is light yellow. It has a dense, coarse-grained structure.Very tender and juicy. Exudes a strong pleasant aroma, with light banana notes. Apples reach ripe maturity in the second decade of September. Stored until January. Transportation is not well tolerated. When pressed, they become stained.
Did you know? Malic acid dissolves gallstones, so those who suffer from gallstone disease are advised to drink about 1 liter of apple juice daily.
In 100 g of fresh produce - 52 kcal. This amount accounts for:
- water - 85.56 g;
- carbohydrates - 11.41 g;
- fat - 0.14 g;
- proteins - 0.26 g;
- dietary fiber - 4.1 g;
- ash - 0.19 g.
Taste of apples
The apples taste sweet, with barely perceptible sourness. Crispy, with a pleasant taste.
The weight of apples is average and above average, varies between 150-200 g. The diameter is from 8 to 10 cm.
Did you know? In alchemy, the apple was a symbol of knowledge.
Trees of this variety grow quite quickly. The height of the adult specimen is about 4 m. The crown is vase-shaped. Skeletal branches are located in relation to the trunk at an angle of 60 °. The leaf plates are large, elongated, with easy pubescence from the inside.If you properly care for the plant, it will give a good harvest every year.
Apples of this variety, in addition to fresh consumption, are widely used in:
- confectionery - they adorn various culinary delights;
- cooking various sauces, dressings, fruit mustard;
- industrial processing.
The Winter Banana variety is of American origin. It was brought to our latitudes at the beginning of the last century.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the winter varieties of apple trees:
The tree enters the fruiting phase in the 5–6th year. Harvest gives annually. Already at the age of 15, the yield is 200 kg per tree.
The variety tolerates frosts up to -25 ° C. Zoned in the southern regions and the central strip.
To increase productivity and improve taste, the tree needs pollinators. The most suitable in this regard are the varieties:
- Bellefleur Chinese;
- Candil synap;
- Rosemary is white.
Features of planting, growing and care
The gardener is faced with the task of organizing proper tree care on the site. The main factor influencing the development of culture is the area reserved for landing.
Did you know? An apple is one of the most common symbols in heraldry. His images are captured on 80 emblems of the countries of the world.
When choosing a place, consider the following factors:
- soil condition - sandstone, loam or chernozem, with a pH level in the range of 5–7;
- groundwater location - no closer than 3 m;
- cultural neighborhood - there should not be cherries, cherries, nightshade, tobacco nearby;
- draft - the site should be protected from the north;
- lighting - plentiful, it is better to plant plants from the south, southeast or southwest side, otherwise they will develop poorly and bear fruit.
In the southern regions, landing is best done in late September-early October. In the central strip, you should give preference to spring planting. They spend it in April, before the buds on the tree swell.
Preparing planting material
Seedlings should be purchased only in trusted stores with a good reputation. The best option is a two-year-old grafted plant. Special features will help to distinguish quality planting material:
- height - 1.2–1.5 m, about 5 lateral shoots;
- fibrous, well-developed rhizome 30 cm long, with a uniform structure, painted in light gray, without deformations and thickenings;
- the presence of a slight curvature over the root neck with a healed wound surface or hemp (the place of budding);
- shoots are integral, flexible, without breaks, spots.
Did you know? The apple is 1/4 of the air, so it does not sink in water.
2 weeks before planting, prepare a landing pit. The optimal width is 80 cm, the depth is 60–70 cm. The distance in the rows is about 5 m, between the plants - at least 4 m. The topsoil (30 cm) is laid separately - then it will need to be mixed with fertilizers. Having reached a depth of 60 cm, the bottom of the pit is dug up onto the bayonet of a shovel.
To the topsoil add:
- 20 kg of compost;
- 20 kg of sand with peat (1: 1);
- 400 g of superphosphate.
Important! In regions with a sufficient level of annual precipitation, irrigation is not carried out at all.
After leveling, they begin to fill the pit. Periodically, the tree is shaken a little so that air voids do not form inside. Having filled the hole with soil, the trunk circle is compacted. Then pour 20 liters of water. After absorbing the liquid, the soil will settle, so you will need to pour it into the hole. After this, the trunk circle is mulched with freshly cut grass or compost. Mulch layer - 5 cm.
Video: instructions for planting an apple tree
During the first year of life after planting, watering is carried out weekly, introducing 20 liters of water at a time. In the future, non-fruiting trees contribute water once every 1-2 months, 30-40 liters. Fertile adult specimens are irrigated according to the scheme:
- before swelling of the kidneys - 40 l;
- after flowering - 50 l;
- after harvesting - 50 liters.
In severely dry periods, additional watering is allowed
Fertilize begin in the 3rd year after planting. In spring, in parallel with the first watering, 6 tbsp. l nitrophosphates or urea.Substances are dissolved in water or, in the absence of watering, close up to a depth of 5 cm around the entire perimeter of the trunk circle, which is equal to the diameter of the crown projection.
The second top dressing is applied after flowering, at the time of formation of the ovary. At this stage, you can use the infusion of humus and wood ash. For 10 l of infusion add 20 l of water and 800 g of ash. After 2 weeks, you can spray with a solution of wood ash. For this, 1 kg of ash is added to 10 liters of water, boiled for 15 minutes. Then cool, filter and dilute with clean water in a ratio of 1: 1. Such spraying will help not only nourish the tree, but also protect it from pests.
The last top dressing is introduced after harvesting. 300-400 g of superphosphate are added to 30 l of water. Pre-winter feeding with superphosphate is alternated after a year with the introduction of organics for digging. 5 kg of rotted manure or compost are applied per 1 m² of trunk circle.
Video: feeding apple trees
Cropping and shaping the crown
Regular pruning of the apple tree is one of the factors affecting the quality of its bearing. Before the 4th year of life of the tree, you need to form a crown. A year after planting, pinching the main conductor is carried out at a height convenient for the gardener. From skeletal branches, 4–5 pieces are left, growing 50 cm above the soil level. They are shortened to 30 cm. All the rest are cut off completely. A distance of 15 cm should remain between the first-order skeletal conductors. The central conductor should always be 20 cm longer than the other shoots. This parameter is relevant throughout the life of the tree - it must be strictly adhered to.Next year, from 3–3 year-old growths on skeletal branches, 2-3 pieces are left, growing in different directions — this will be a second-order skeleton. They are shortened to 15 cm. Next year, a third-order skeleton is formed in a similar way. When the crown is formed, only sanitary measures are carried out, involving the removal of branches damaged by the wind, dry, growing inward or affected by diseases. Pruning is advisable in the spring, but in case of damage by pests or fungal diseases - immediately, regardless of the time of year.
Important! Cut only with a clean garden tool that has been treated with alcohol. At the end of the procedure, be sure to cover the wound surfaces with garden var.
Possible growing difficulties
The culture in question is resistant to pests and diseases, except for scab. The disease progresses very quickly with high humidity, especially in rainy years. If the tree is affected by scab, you must immediately remove all infected parts. Then carry out the treatment with the drug "Mancozeb" according to the instructions.In the future, before swelling of the kidneys and after harvesting, it is imperative to spray with 3% solution of copper sulfate. After flowering, you need to do spraying with a solution of "Fitosporin" or "Fitoverma".
Neglect of agricultural practices can also lead to the spread of such pests:
In case of parasite damage, it is also necessary first of all to remove all the affected parts from the tree. Then carry out the processing according to the instructions of “Aktaru”.
Harvesting and storage
In the second decade of September, they start harvesting the Winter Banana. Peel the apples by hand, along with the stalks. They are stored in drawers, laying out no denser than in 2 layers, always parchment.
Important! Do not store apples near potatoes, otherwise they will not lie for 2 weeks.
For better preservation, special conditions should be provided to the fruits:
- lack of light;
- good ventilation of the room;
- temperature at + 6 ° C;
- humidity - 70%.