Features of planting and caring for a rosemary apple tree
Many gardeners when planting apple seedlings choose varieties of the so-called folk selection. Today, the article will focus on the Rosemary apple, its cultivation and characteristics.
Variety breeding history
Two subspecies are popular today: Rosemary Russian and Rosemary white. According to unconfirmed versions, the first subspecies comes from the famous Antonovka, and the second is a seedling of Austrian or Italian origin. Both varieties can be grown in the middle zone of the Russian Federation, in the south of the country, in Ukraine and Belarus.
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Description and characteristics of wood
The tree is vigorous with a round or pyramidal crown. The branches are thick and strong, the color of the bark is brown. The foliage is oval-elongated, pubescent in the lower part, light green. The leaf plates are streaked with veins.
Fruits in the shape of an elongated cone or round, weighing 100-200 g. Both varieties of light green color, with ripening, are covered with a dash blush. On a dense peel, a waxy coating is clearly visible. The taste is sweet with a slight sour note, the aroma is strongly pronounced, apple-spicy.
Pollination, fruiting and ripening
For pollination, varieties with similar flowering periods (second half of May) and fruiting periods are selected. For example, Renet champagne, Boyken. Rosemary begins to bear fruit actively in 8–10 years after planting. The productive period lasts about 10 years. Ripening time is September.
The data on the yield of Rosemary are very different in different sources, the average value is 170 kg per tree. However, in almost all reviews, the minimum number of drops is indicated. Fruits adhere to the stalk.
The Russian subspecies is resistant to low temperatures, withstanding -35 ° C. White rosemary is more adapted to the southern regions, so it needs to be covered and planted in a place protected from the wind.
Pros and cons of the variety
The apple tree is considered one of the most delicious varieties grown in our latitudes.
- And this is not her only advantage:
- excellent taste;
- good fruiting;
- resistance to frost;
- immunity against scab and other fungi;
- transportability and keeping quality (up to 4 months).
The disadvantage is the late entry into bearing.
Features of planting apple trees
To get a quality crop, the tree needs to be provided with the most suitable conditions.
Favorable conditions for growing
In regions with a long winter, planting is carried out in the autumn, in the southern regions it is preferable to plant in the spring. The soil during the spring procedure should be warmed up to + 6 ... + 8 ° С.
The apple tree shows the best productivity on light, loose, fertile soils. The soil should have good throughput, since the tree does not tolerate moisture stagnation.
For the same reason, the location of underground sources is not desirable closer than 2 m to the soil surface. Good lighting is a prerequisite for the prevalence of sweetness in the taste.
The root system of seedlings is soaked in water a couple of hours before the procedure. When planting several trees, the distance between the pits is 4-5 m. Digging a hole, the upper layer of garden soil is set aside, and the lower one is mixed with fertilizers.
Important! On scarce soils, in the shade or in lowlands where moisture stagnates, the fruits will be acidic and small.
On a bucket of earth add:
- 4 kg of compost;
- 1 kg of peat;
- 1 kg of sand (except sandy soils);
- 200 g of wood ash;
- 30 g of superphosphate.
Digging a landing hole with a depth of 80 cm, the same diameter. A nutrient mixture is placed at the bottom, forming a mound of 30 cm. Two pegs are driven along the edges of the hill to support the plant, and a seedling is placed in the center of the hill.
Root shoots should be smooth, straightened. Falling asleep with soil, you need to monitor the height of the root neck, it should be 2-3 cm above the soil level. The earth is compacted, "driving out" air voids, and irrigated with two buckets of water.
Features of apple care
In addition to basic care procedures, the tree needs cleanliness in the near-trunk circle. After each irrigation, the topsoil is loosened. Be sure to weed from weeds.
There are enough 3 waterings per season for rosemary; during drought, the number of irrigation increases. The first watering is carried out before flowering, spending up to 30 liters of water in the groove of the trunk circle.
A second hydration is necessary for a good laying of fruits; 30–40 liters of water under a tree will be required. The last water-loading watering is needed in the fall after harvesting the fruits. Up to 50 liters of water are poured into the trunk circle.
The apple tree forms a dense crown, which needs annual thinning. In the early years, all branches competing with the central shoot and the base of the frame are removed. Lateral fruiting branches shorten by 5-6 eyes, inhibiting growth.
Every spring and autumn, sanitary pruning is carried out, removing weak, broken and incorrectly growing shoots. Lateral growths of skeletal branches are also removed, leaving only 1-2 promising.
Important! If the sun's rays do not penetrate the branches to the fruits, they will significantly lose in taste quality.
Rosemary responds better to organic fertilizers, but it is not advisable to overdo it with them. In addition, you need to remember that fresh manure or litter burns the roots of the plant.
In the spring before flowering, liquid root dressing is carried out with infusion of mullein diluted with water 1: 10. After flowering, it will be useful to feed grass infusion, best of nettles, according to the leaf. In autumn, depleted fruiting soil needs to be charged for future crops. 4 kg of compost and a glass of wood ash are introduced into the trunk circle for 1 m².
Diseases of the tree and the fight against them
The variety is not prone to disease, showing enviable resistance. Preventive treatments with fungicides reinforce this fact.
The apple pests are more concerned about pests that insecticides help fight:
- Akarin destroys the moth and moth, as well as their offspring. For spraying, prepare an aqueous solution in a ratio of 8 ml / 1 l.
- Inta-Vir effective against aphids and leaf-eating caterpillars. Spraying is carried out with a solution in the ratio of 1 tablet per 10 liters of water.
- Confidor helps against scale insects. Processing is carried out by spraying the drug in a ratio of 1 ml / 5 l of water.
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Harvesting, storage and transportability of the crop
Apples are harvested in September, until November they fully ripen. Thanks to the dense peel, the fruits tolerate transportation without losing their presentation. The winter variety is perfectly stored for 3-4 months, according to some reviews, and until spring.
Fruits collected with the stem, according to the recommendation of gardeners, are wrapped in wax paper (each). Boxes of fruit are placed in a dark, dry place with a temperature of 0 ° C to + 2 ° C. The maximum permissible humidity is 85%.
Experienced farmers and beginners in gardening will appreciate the Rosemary variety. It is not difficult to grow it, and the taste and yield are beyond praise.