Features of growing plums Manchurian beauty and care for her
Plum Manchurian beauty is not only an exotic name. The variety has many positive characteristics, which is why it attracts domestic gardeners. About how to plant a plant and how to grow it, read on in the article.
Description of plum variety Manchurian beauty
Plums The Manchurian beauty - the result of the work of the originator of Russian origin Ivanov M.F. The variety was obtained in Yaomyne, Manchuria. In the 1920s, the variety was sent to the Far East, where it was studied by the scientists A. Taratukhin and N. N. Tikhonov. From this moment, the beauty of Manchuria became famous among Russian agronomists.
Data on maternal varieties at the time of plum distribution were lost. After studying the material, the cultivologists suggested that the Manchurian beauty appeared as a result of the crossing of Simon, Ussuri and Chinese varieties.
The variety is zoned in several regions of the Russian Federation, namely:
- East Siberian;
- Far Eastern;
- West Siberian.
According to the experience of agronomists, the Manchurian beauty grows well in the European part of the country, the entire territory of Siberia and the Far East.
Plum trees grow to a level of 1.8 m. The crown is very leafy, rounded in shape. The stamp is mild, covered with a bark of gray-brown color. Branches are dark brown, curved. Buds with different functions vary in size: fruit - large, vegetative - a little less. Leaf blades are emerald green, lanceolate or elliptical, grow up to 10 cm long, up to 5 cm wide. Three small white buds in inflorescences.
Did you know? Plums are an important product in the British royal court. Queen Elizabeth II's breakfast is complete without two fresh plums.
Plums are round in shape without a pronounced abdominal suture, with a flat base and a narrow funnel, larger than average in size. The weight of one fruit is 13–17 g. The peel is of medium strength, burgundy in color with a blue coating. The pulp is yellow with a green tint, in structure is dense and juicy. The stone is difficult to move away from the pulp. The taste is sweet and sour without a pronounced plum aroma.
Plums of this variety tolerate transportation well
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The variety has a number of undeniable advantages.
- Among them:
- fast ripening;
- resistance to drought;
- good transportability;
- resistance to common diseases of plums;
- high palatability of fruits;
- universal application of the product.
- At the same time, agronomists distinguish three main disadvantages of the Manchurian beauty:
- lack of self-fertility;
- high probability of aging;
- tendency to shed plums from branches.
Plum planting requirements
First of all, the gardener needs to determine the place of planting. The Manchurian beauty is not self-fertile, so other varieties should grow nearby. Ural golden, Ural red or Ussuri plums are suitable as pollinators.
The culture well perceives neutral acid loamy or podzolic-sod substrates. The terrain should be well lit and protected from sudden winds. Groundwater is permissible at a level not exceeding 1.3 m.
Important! Do not plant in lowland areas where water stagnates after rains and snowmelt. This is fraught with tree boiling.
It is also necessary to determine the timing of planting, prepare a planting pit and study the correct technology for planting a seedling.
About landing dates
Manchu beauty is better rooted in warm weather. For this reason, plum trees are best planted in mid-spring.
Video: Plum Planting Instructions
Preparing a pit for a seedling
So that the seedling of the Manchurian beauty quickly takes root, it is better to prepare the soil six months before planting. In October, dig a plot intended for planting a tree to a depth of 25-30 cm.
When digging, apply for each 1 m² of substrate:
- 200 g of potassium chloride;
- 300 g of urea;
- 800 g azofoski;
- 35 kg of compost.
Dig a planting hole just before planting a tree. The optimal parameters of the pit are 0.6 m in depth and 0.6 m in diameter. Keep a distance of 3 m between the rows, and 2 m between the plants. The plant will have enough fertilizers introduced during the autumn digging of the soil.
If the preparatory work has not been carried out, introduce a mixture of nutrients into the planting pit:
- 30 g of potassium sulphide;
- 150 g of superphosphate;
- 15 kg of fresh compost.
Important! If the soil is highly acidic, at the time of planting, pour the tree with a solution of ash prepared at the rate of 300 g per 10 liters of water. Slaked lime is also suitable.
How to plant
When landing, proceed according to the following technology:
- Place the seedling with the rhizome in the clay mash for 50-60 minutes.
- Form a small hill at the bottom of the landing pit.
- Drive a wooden stake 15 cm from the center of the pit.
- Place the planting material in the pit and spread the roots.
- Fill the hole with soil so that the root collar is 7 cm above the soil.
- Tamp the substrate and pour 40 liters of water under the trunk.
- Tie the plum to the stake.
- Mulch the trunk circle with sawdust mulch.
1 - a mixture of earth with pus; 2 - ground from the upper layer; 3 - small pegs; 4 - irrigation hole; 5 - landing stake; 6 - shtambik tree; 7 - hole roller; 8 - landing board.
Features of plum care
Manchurian beauty must be properly looked after. The list of mandatory procedures includes pruning, watering, top dressing, preparing for winter and pest control.
After planting, the first year the plant does not need to be trimmed. In the future, the crown is formed annually. The appropriate time for the procedure is November or March.
From 2 to 5 years it is necessary to form a crown
The tree should have three tiers of skeletal branches:
- the first - 5 branches at the level of 0.5 m from the soil;
- second - 3 shoots 0.4 m above the first tier;
- third - 1 stalk 0.4 m above the second tier.
At the same time, the crown of the head is cut at 1.8 m.
The formed tree continues to be pruned every year. The crown is thinned out by removing diseased, broken and too large stems. Places of cuts for disinfection should be treated with garden var.
In the first year of life, the plant is not fertilized. The tree has enough water made when digging a site or when digging a landing hole.
In subsequent years, top dressing is carried out according to the following scheme:
- before flowering - 40 g of potassium salt and 25 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m² of soil;
- during flowering - a solution of 5 l of water and 10 g of urea under the trunk;
- after flowering - a solution of 5 l of water, 1.5 l of mullein and 25 g of superphosphate per 1 m² of land around the trunk;
- in early summer - spraying with a urea solution at a concentration of 1%;
- at the end of September - a solution of 20 liters of water, 6 tbsp. l superphosphate and 4 tbsp. potassium chloride.
Improper care leads to pests, diseases
Manchurian beauty - drought tolerant varietyHowever, trees require regular watering. Moisten the soil every month throughout the growing season.
Did you know? Plum in Japanese culture is a symbol of the arrival of spring.
To properly water the tree, dig a small depression in the circumference of the planting pit. Water should be poured precisely in this recess, and not under the trunk.
The irrigation area is determined by the projection area of the crown
The Manchurian beauty variety is resistant to a number of diseases, including:
However, an attack of other diseases and pests is possible.
Among the diseases, the most likely are gray rot, red spotting, plum pockets, and gum disease:
|Gray rot||If the disease manifests itself before the kidneys dissolve, the affected branches are removed, and the tree is treated with a solution of copper chloroxide, which is prepared from 80 g of concentrate and a bucket of water. After flowering, the plant is treated with a solution of Bordeaux mixture at a concentration of 1%.|
|Red spotting||Before budding, the trunk, crown and soil are sprayed with 2% Nitrafen. After flowering, the tree is sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture.|
|Plum pockets||For treatment using a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture.|
|Gum detection||Wounds on the stem and branches are lubricated with garden var. Additionally, the tree is treated with a solution of copper sulfate in a concentration of 1%.|
Pest attack is also possible.
The most common of them are the codling moth, comma scutellaria, black sawfly, and pseudoscutis.
|Moth||Before flowering, the plant is treated with Chlorophos. After flowering, “Benzophosphate” is used.|
|Comma scale||Plum needs to be processed before dissolution of the kidneys with paste "Nitrafen" 60%. To prepare a solution, dilute 200 g of the concentrate in a bucket of water.|
|Black sawfly||Before the kidneys dissolve, the tree is treated with Aktara. Before the start of budding, it is recommended to use the Rogor product, after flowering - Karbofos.|
|False shield||The plant is treated three times: "Nitrafen" before budding and in mid-summer, as well as "Karbofos" after fruiting.|
To avoid diseases and parasites, pay attention to preventive measures:
- Autumn digging of the soil after fruiting;
- timely collection of fallen leaves;
- annual sanitary pruning;
- burning fallen leaves and cut branches.
What you need to know about winter care
To prevent the tree from freezing in winter, it must be protected before the onset of frost.
In November, gardeners carry out a number of necessary procedures:
- mulch the trunk circle with a layer of sawdust of 8 cm;
- whiten stems and skeletal shoots;
- young immature trees are wrapped in spanbond or paper;
- additionally trunks are wrapped with mesh material to protect the plant from hares.
If there is a lot of snow in winter, it is specially raked to the trunk and rammed. Such manipulations help to better insulate the root system.
Harvesting and storage
Harvest ripens for the first time 3 years after planting a seedling. Mass fruiting begins in late August. The fruits ripen until mid-September. The average yield is 7 kg from a young tree and 25 kg from an adult tree.
Plums should be collected a maximum on the second day after ripening. This is due to the fact that ripe fruits prone to shedding from branches. Plums are stored for 1–1.5 weeks at a temperature of +1 ... + 5 ° С. For long-term storage, fruits can be frozen or dried on an electric dryer.
With proper care, the Manchu beauty bears fruit regularly and abundantly
The variety of Manchurian beauty must be properly looked after - only in this case the trees will actively grow and bear fruit. However, for a responsible gardener, cultivation is not difficult, because as a result he will get extremely tasty and healthy plums.