How to plant and grow an apple tree from a seed at home?
Growing apple trees from seed is painstaking work. Germination of the seed can take up to 6 months, but the result will be worth all the effort. How to grow an apple tree from the seeds of a house, whether the resulting specimen will bear fruit and how quickly it will enter this phase, read below.
Is it possible to grow an apple tree from a seed at home?
The cost of high-quality planting material in nurseries is far from acceptable for every gardener, so many think about germinating apple trees from seeds, which are always available. However, this process is time-consuming, so if you need to quickly get a seedling, this option is not suitable.
Did you know? Of all the fruit stands on Earth, 5 million hectares are planted with apple trees. Almost every second fruit crop is an apple tree.
In addition, the procedure and its effectiveness has its own nuances. The first difficulty of the procedure in question is that far for each seed it will sprout. The second nuance is the fruiting of the resulting specimen.
It is important to understand that the apple tree grown from seed very rarely adopts the quality indicators of the parent plant and in most cases yields a crop with reduced marketable and taste characteristics. To get a healthy fruiting apple tree, you need to choose the right variety, and at a certain stage of growth to be vaccinated.
The advantage of such an event is the obtaining of disease-resistant, productive trees, whose lifespan will be at least 40 years, in contrast to purchased seedlings. The main thing is to fulfill all the requirements and create favorable conditions for growing sprouts.
Optimal landing times
You can plant seeds in spring or autumn. With home cultivation, the timing of planting does not matter. The main task is to create the right conditions for germination.
Seed selection and preparation
You should first pick a variety. According to the classification of Michurin, there are 3 groups of varietal plants that differ in the quality of transmission of gene information to offspring. So there are varieties that can transmit their qualities to offspring in full, provided there is no pollination with wild animals.
This group includes almost all large-fruited Chinese women, Antonovka, Muscat, Skrut, Pineapple white. The second group includes plants with an unstable ability to transmit gene information to offspring - Babushkino, Grushovka, Borovinka. The third group includes varieties that, without observing certain conditions, are capable of transmitting genetic information - Renet green, Anis, Vorgulet, Pepin saffron, Volga turnip.
If the task is to grow a good cultivar without vaccination, it is better to give preference to seeds from the third group. If you need to grow a long-known variety, then you should first prepare a frost-resistant game, and plant a cultural variety on it.
Selecting seeds should pay attention to their maturity. They should be dense, evenly colored brown. Seeds must be removed carefully so that they are not damaged.
Important! To avoid wasting time, always prepare about 5-10 seeds - after germination, only the strongest copies are suitable for planting, the rest will have to be thrown away. If only 1 seed is germinated, there is a great risk of not getting planting material at all.
After extracting the seeds from the fetus, the inhibitory layer that prevents germination must be washed off. To do this, they pour warm water into a glass. Liquid temperature - +35 ... + 37 ° С.Then the selected seeds are placed in it and stirred for 5 minutes with a wooden spoon or stick. Then the water is drained using gauze or a sieve. The procedure is repeated 3-4 times.
The next stage of preparation involves soaking in warm water (+ 35 ° C) for 3-4 days. The container must be constantly kept warm and water changed daily to avoid decay of planting material. The air temperature in the room should be maintained within + 27 ° C.
On the third day, a growth accelerator should be added to the replaced water. To this end, you can use "Epin." In a glass of water (100 ml) add 3 drops of the drug. After 12 hours, the water is drained and transferred to the next stage of preparation.
The stratification process is not necessary - it is possible to carry out germination at room temperature. But, it is an imitation of natural conditions and hardening, which contributes to obtaining high-quality copies resistant to negative factors. In this regard, it is better not to refuse the procedure.
Did you know? In heraldry, apples are a symbol of peace.
Stratification is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Sphagnum moss, sawdust, peat and sand are mixed in equal proportions.
- 2 tablets of crushed activated carbon are added to the mixture.
- The resulting substrate is mixed with seeds in a ratio of 3: 1.
- Place the entire mass in a low oblong container.
- Pour the contents of the container with warm water (+ 30 ° C) until it starts to ooze from the drainage holes.
- Stand for about a week at room temperature.
- After a week, the container is moved to the refrigerator door or to the cellar, the main thing is that the air temperature is maintained at + 6 ° C.
Sowing technology: how to plant an apple from a stone at home
After stratification, you should examine all the sprouts and select the strongest. In accordance with their number, prepare a wide box or container with a large number of drainage holes. At the bottom of the tank is placed 2 cm of expanded clay and perlite drainage. It is better to use chernozem as a soil mixture for germination. It contains all the necessary nutrients.
For each kg, add 100 g of wood ash to the soil and pour it with 1 liter of water with the addition of 1 ml of Epina. Soil moisture should be around 60%. Then the soil is well mixed and placed in a container.
Instructions for planting seeds for germination:
- Make a marking in the box with a wooden stick - between the rows leave a step of 20 cm, keep a distance of 3 cm between the seeds.
- Deepen under the seeds do no more than 2 cm.
- Place the seeds in the recesses and cover them with soil.
- If the soil is not wet enough, you can irrigate using a finely divided spray gun.
How long the seeds germinate depends on environmental conditions. To speed up the process, you can cover the container with glass and put in a warm place until the sprouts bite. The room temperature in this case should be kept within + 25 ° С.
You can also practice another method of landing after stratification. Hatching sprouts are removed from the soil and immersed in a shallow container with water. A week later, they look to see if they let the roots in the water.
Those seeds that have taken root are planted in separate peat pots. But, this method is practiced much less frequently than the above. When the sprouts hatch through the soil, the glass should be removed and set the pot on a well-lit window sill.
Video: Seed Apple Tree
Features of growing and caring for sprouts
In the future, before the appearance of the second pair of leaves, the care of the sprouts consists only in maintaining soil moisture within 50%. It is necessary to carry out humidification on demand from the atomizer, so as not to damage the fragile sprouts.When the second pair of leaves appears, it is necessary to thin out the plants, removing too weak specimens and wild animals.
Important! As fertilizer, clean manure or its infusion should not be used for sprouts, otherwise the risk of burning the roots increases.
Distinguishing wild animals is quite simple in appearance. The leaf plates have a brighter color than the varietal and smaller sizes, and on the trunks themselves there are thorns. After thinning, the distance between the plants should remain within 8 cm.
At home, seedlings contain for 4 years. They are transplanted annually, increasing the volume of containers. For the first time, picking is carried out when there are 3 pairs of leaves on the trees. Capacities are selected in accordance with the size of the root system.
When transplanting from root to bottom, about 5 cm should remain, up to the walls - 7-8 cm. When replanting plants for the first time, the central root is cut by 3-5 cm or bent at a right angle to the side. The transplant is carried out by the transshipment method. Further transplants are carried out in April.One-year-old plants begin to water under the root once a week. Water is poured so much that it begins to ooze through the drainage holes. Then be sure to drain the liquid from the pan and wipe it dry. After an hour, the drained liquid is again drained and the pan is wiped.
Fertilizers are applied one month after transplantation. In May, 500 ml of humus infusion or 30 g of nitrophoska are added to 1 liter of water. So that the plants do not stretch much in the autumn, around September-October, plants feed 20 g of potassium chloride and 30 g of superphosphate. Substances are diluted in 2 liters of water.
Important!An apple tree can be successfully cultivated at home from seeds. It takes 4 years to grow a healthy seedling. The process is painstaking, but the result will surely please you.
After watering and fertilizing, the soil is gently loosened after 12 hours. Also, when growing plants, you need to monitor the indoor climate. The optimum temperature during the day is +15 ... + 18 ° С, at night this indicator needs to be reduced by 5 ° С.
Apple trees need a lot of light. In shading, plants will develop poorly. It is best to place containers with seedlings in the southern part of the home. Throughout the warm period, plants should be kept on the balcony or exposed to the garden. After 4 years, they land in open ground.