How to treat cancer on the apple tree?
Cancer of the apple trees is an infectious fungal disease, and is mainly found in regions with a climate that is characterized by frequent temperature fluctuations. The lack of timely help to the plant can lead not only to a decrease in the quality and quantity of the crop, but also to the death of the apple tree. Therefore, it is so important to distinguish between the first symptoms of the disease, know how to deal with it, and take action in time.
Types of Fruit Tree Cancer
The most dangerous for the apple tree are several types of cancer - black, ordinary, root and bacterial. A common feature that combines these varieties of fungal disease is the ability to defeat all parts of the tree, without exception. First of all, skeletal branches suffer.
Let us consider in more detail each of the types of disease, as well as methods of control and prevention.
Did you know? According to research by scientists at Cambridge University, daily eating apples can prolong life by 3 years.
"Antonov fire" (as it is popularly called) is the most common type of disease and occurs on a tree by getting a fungal infection into damaged areas of the plant - through cracks in the bark, frostbitten fragments, sections that were not treated with copper sulfate solution.
A weak tree can be susceptible to a whole range of diseases, so the combination of black cancer with other infections is not uncommon
In the early stages, the disease is almost impossible to detect. Old trees are more susceptible to black cancer, and in the most severe cases, it can hit the core of the trunk and lead to the formation of putrefactive processes - in this case the tree is cut down, since such a process is irreversible.
Important! Apple trees that cannot be treated should not only be uprooted, but also necessarily burned, because even in this form they can be a source of infection.
Also called European cancer. It develops after the fungus enters under the damaged bark of a tree. The disease has two forms:
- Open. In this case, cracks form on the tree, the depth of which can reach the core of the trunk.
- Closed. With this form, the affected areas are under the growths - this type of ordinary cancer is very difficult to diagnose.
The most difficult to tolerate cancer is undersized varieties of apple trees, since tall trees can independently recover
The disease disrupts the water-carbohydrate balance of the tree, which subsequently leads to a decrease in the number of crops, and then to the death of the whole plant. At the same time, strong-growing apple trees have the ability to recover independently from European cancer, while low-growing varieties harder to tolerate this disease.
Bacteria of this type of cancer penetrate the root system of the tree through minor injuries and lead to the formation of growths, on which rot forms over time. Such conditions only accelerate the development of the disease, and may soon lead to the death of the tree. Root cancer is almost impossible to treat.
At risk are trees that are planted in slightly alkaline neutral soil or in places where apple trees have been growing for a long time. To avoid such situations, it is recommended that new trees be planted in places of their other species.
It should be remembered that the bacteria that cause root cancer are in the soil for another 2-3 years after the death of the plant.
It is caused by gram-negative sticks, the source of which is the appearance of new seedlings and seedlings on the site. The main goal of this disease is defeat of the upper part of the tree - branches, ovaries and fruits. Favorable conditions for the development of cancer of this type are high levels of humidity and air temperature.
The disease often leads to loss of productivity and stunting of the tree. In the case of prolonged lack of treatment, bacterial cancer can provoke the death of the affected part of the plant.
Sawn branches must be taken out of the garden and burned
Causes of cancer on the apple tree
There are many factors that lead to the development of one type of cancer. However, one way or another, almost all of them are associated with violation of basic rules of care. The following are common errors and causes leading to the onset of the disease.
As with all fungal diseases, Warm, Wet Weather May Be Ideal for Cancer. The bacteria of this disease can be at rest under the bark of a tree for about 2 years and become active in just 5-6 hours at a temperature of +22 ... + 28 ° С. Even elevated to +35 ... 40 ° C air temperature is acceptable for the development of this disease.
Poor quality trees
All infections that lead to the development of cancer on trees develop better on weakened and old apple trees, whose immunity cannot resist the effects of the disease. The result is the rapid formation of mycelium and, with increased air humidity, the rapid spread and infection of surrounding trees.
The resistance to cancer in young trees is high, and rapidly regenerating tissues do not allow cancer to penetrate into the core of the apple tree
Improper care or lack thereof
Among the reasons contributing to the spread of apple disease are:
- ignoring systematic trimming and thickening of the crown;
- open untreated wounds on the surface of the tree;
- neglect of the treatment of fungal diseases and pests;
- the presence of mosses and lichens on the trunk and crown of a tree.
Video: How to properly care for fruit trees
Increased activity in the care negatively affects the health of trees, as well as inadequate care. So, excessive soil replenishment with fertilizers leads to their accumulation in the soil, which creates a favorable environment for the formation of fungal infections.
Today, intensive gardens are gaining momentum, which imply a dense planting of early ripe fruit trees that can bring a large number of crops in a short time.The defeat of the foliage by the fungus leads to its withering and subsequent decay. However, this is precisely such compacted landing pattern leads to rapid infection of the entire site. Therefore, such apple trees require frequent inspection and intensive care. Another reason that can cause tree cancer is the deep planting of seedlings.
Important! It is strongly recommended not to plant apple trees near places of active decomposition of organic substances (compost pits, toilets), which are foci of various diseases. The minimum distance must be at least 3 m.
Signs of a disease on a tree
Depending on the type of cancer, the main signs of the disease may slightly change:
- Black cancer can be diagnosed by the formation of large black spots on the trunk cortex, which over time increase their area and lead to subsidence of the cortex. The disease also affects foliage and fruits, and in rare cases, ovaries - black spots appear on leaves and apples, as a result of which the first fall off, and the second mummify. In the most advanced forms, cancer affects the core of the trunk and causes the plant to rot.
- Common cancer manifests itself more often in the spring with dark spots with a bright sheen that cover the branches and roots of the tree.The next stage of this disease is the appearance of dark red growths, on which the bark dies and descends, and in its place deep wounds appear. Subsequently, the affected areas of the tree begin to rot.
- Root cancer manifested by the formation of many growths on the rhizome of the tree, which rot and become the cause of death of the apple tree.
- Bacterial cancer can be recognized by dark spots on fruits that stop growing and disappear, and foliage that loses color and curls.
Video: Why do apple trees dry
How to cure an apple tree from black and bacterial cancer?
More recently, trees infected with cancer were almost untreated. All that could be done was only to delay the death of the apple tree for several years. Today, there are many tools that can destroy the fungus and completely stop the disease.
But even modern drugs are not omnipotent and therefore it is recommended to conduct a systematic examination of trees in order to identify the disease in the early stages, and if necessary, treat it comprehensively.
The first thing you should pay attention to when starting cancer treatment is stripping, which involves removing the affected branches, fruits and leaves, and then burning them.
Apple trees that are in the advanced phases of the disease should be uprooted, while trying to cut the rhizome as deep as possible.
An important condition is to start the struggle at the initial stages of development
Operations on the bark of the apple tree trunk and skeletal branches
Since skeletal branches affected by the disease are not treated, they are removed entirely. The remaining infected apple fragments are destroyed mechanically - sections are cut to a depth that captures about 2 cm of healthy wood tissue. All removed parts are also burned, which prevents the further spread of the disease, and only then begin treatment.
Wound disinfection and isolation
Places of cut branches and other foci of infection must be treated with antiseptic agents, which are used as: copper sulfate (with a calculation of 100 g per 10 liters of water), iron sulfate (with a calculation of 200 g per 10 liters of water), potassium permanganate or brilliant green.
After disinfection, the site of the disease is isolated from exposure to water and air. For these purposes, drying oil, oil paint or garden var.
As a means of combating cancer and for preparing insulating agents on damaged areas of a tree, folk recipes are often used, which consist only of natural ingredients.
Did you know? Useful properties are possessed not only by apples, but also their leaves, which are used as an infusion for the treatment of cough and other manifestations of colds.
A mixture of clay and mullein
The composition contains clay and mullein mixed in equal parts. A slice or damaged area is treated with a layer of prepared putty, at least 10 cm thick, then bandaged and covered with another layer. The whole fruit season, this place is systematically moistened with water or a heteroauxin solution (with the calculation of 2 tablets per 10 liters of water), and then re-coated with the mixture.
Any bark damage is a potential site of infection.
A mixture of rosin, wax and nigrol
The components are mixed in equal proportions and cover the affected area in several layers (previously allowing each of them to dry).
A mixture of garden soil, pre-treated with a fungicide, is applied to the damaged area or slice, which is subsequently left open (no dressing required). After each rain, the procedure is repeated.
Today, there are many drugs to help cure tree cancer.
The use of stem injections, which are based on the active substance streptomycin, is permissible in one of the stages of the growing season.
Carrying out a similar procedure involves the following steps:
- On the trunk of the apple tree, a small area is selected, located at a level of 1 m above the soil surface and without damage or deformation, in which a hole is drilled with a depth of about 2 cm.
- A small hose is inserted into the prepared hole, through which a 4% streptomycin solution is supplied.
- The hole is sealed with a stopper.
If skeletal branches require medical intervention, holes are made at a distance of 30-40 cm from the place of growth. Each branch, the diameter of which exceeds 15 cm, needs a separate injection.
Antibiotics are often used to fight apple cancer., with such an active substance as streptomycin and tetracycline.
Initial treatment is carried out in early summer and consists of a solution containing 1 g of streptomycin, which is dissolved in 5 l of water. The treatment regimen is 3 times with an interval of 14-20 days.
Important! During the rainy season, trees are treated more often, not adhering to the prescribed intervals.
It is permissible to use a scheme that implies the use of a standard dose of the drug for the first time, and in subsequent times, an increase in concentration due to a decrease in the amount of water in the solution from 4 l to 3 l.
Antibiotic treatment will save the tree
Antifungal treatment for people
Gardeners often use antifungal medications to treat people in the fight against tree cancer. However, experts question this method, because the nature of infection and the development of fungal diseases in people and plants has clear differences.
For example, Nystatin, which is so often used in the fight against black apple cancer, is initially prescribed to people with mucosal lesions with a fungus of the species Candida. Trees cannot have such a disease, and the drug itself does not affect a different type of fungus.
Disease prevention methods
The procedure for the prevention of diseases of apple trees is associated with compliance with the rules of growing and caring for fruit trees:
- Apple tree planting scheme relies on the recommended distance, which is at least 3 m. The need to avoid close proximity with compost pits and street toilets is taken into account. Preferred places will be areas well lit by sunlight, while being closed from constant exposure to ultraviolet rays, which, falling on foliage, can cause burns and thereby trigger the development of fungal diseases.
- The procedure trimming and forming crowns carried out systematically - this provides the necessary air circulation.
- Old trees are subjected to continuous cleaning of the bark or, if necessary, uprooted.
- In the spring and autumn (before budding and after the leaves fall), spend whitewash trunk to a height of about 2 m.
- In areas where frequent cases of black cancer are observed due to climatic and weather conditions, it is recommended planting stable immunity apple trees to fungal diseases.
- The soil in the trunk circle is constantly loosen and weed from weeds.
An additional means of prevention and treatment of fungal infection is manganese fertilizer
Is the disease dangerous to humans?
Despite its awesome name, apple cancer is a type of fungal disease. It has an excellent nature of existence from cancer, which develops in the human body, and therefore does not pose a danger to people.
Fruits collected from branches infected with the disease are usable, but only if they are not susceptible to putrefactive changes.
When meeting with such a common disease as tree cancer, it is necessary to understand that the main reason for its appearance is a violation of the rules of agricultural technology. Despite the many medications and folk remedies, cancer is not always cured. In this regard, the best measures to combat fungal diseases is the systematic implementation of preventive measures. It is always worth remembering that it is easier to prevent a disease than to treat it.