Features of growing Tushon carrots and caring for her
Owners of household plots prefer to grow vegetables on their own to get a healthy, high-quality crop. When choosing the right variety of carrots, you should pay attention to a very young product of Russian selection called Tushon. The features of its cultivation will be discussed in the article.
Origin and region of landing
Carrots of this variety passed state tests in 2006, and was included in the register of selection achievements of the Russian Federation three years later - thus, it exists on the market for only 10 years.
Did you know? The authors did not report how the name of the variety appeared, but the word “tushon” in Uzbek means “dream”. It is possible that the excellent qualities of root crops, appreciated by breeders, really seemed to them a real waking dream.
The emergence of this variety, farmers owe the efforts of a whole group of scientists, in particular, according to the State Register, the initiators of Tushon are: agricultural company "Search" (Moscow region), known for creating several hundred new varieties and hybrids, Federal State Budget Scientific Institution "Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Production" (Moscow region), as well as an individual entrepreneur from the Stavropol Territory, the head of the peasant (farm) economy Irina Timofeevna Karakai.
Tushon is zoned in the third (Central) region, which includes eight regions of Russia, including Moscow, Tula, Ryazan, Bryansk, Smolensk, Ivanovo, Vladimir and Kaluga. Of the states neighboring Russia, it has taken root very well in Ukraine and Moldova.
Tushon is a classic example of the Amsterdam carrot variety. The root crop has the following external features:
|The form||Almost right thin cylinder with a blunt end|
|Length||150–220 mm (above average)|
|Peel||Bright orange, delicate, thin, even and smooth, small eyes. Root crops are allowed without preliminary cleaning.|
|Pulp color||Saturated orange, uniform throughout|
|Pulp structure||Very juicy, not stiff|
The taste characteristics of Tushon are very high.: carrot pulp is sweet, crispy, very popular with children. The variety is characterized by a high content of beta-carotene - up to 17.8 mg per 100 g compared with the average for carrots no higher than 9 mg and a maximum of 18.2 mg. But in terms of sugar (5.4–8.2%) and solids (9.6–18.4%), Tushon is not very different from other varieties of this vegetable.
The direction of use of root crops is universal: When sowing in early spring, Tushon’s fast-ripening crop is best immediately consumed fresh (the so-called “bundle” cultivation), but carrots are also suitable for squeezing juices, making mashed potatoes and other baby food.
Did you know? The largest carrot in the Guinness Book of Records is 10 kg 180 g. The giant root crop has grown in the United States, Minnesota, in a farmer’s garden named Christopher Qually.
Tushon leaves are not too long, have a medium or deep dissection and a saturated green color, they are attached to the root crop by long petioles. The bush has the form of a semi-spreading rosette.
In addition to the external characteristics and taste qualities of a variety of vegetables selected for growing, any gardener is also interested in the practical side of the issue - yield indicators, ripening dates, resistance to adverse environmental factors, and agro-technical features of cultivation, which are described below.
Tushon, like other representatives of the Amsterdam variety, ripens in 70–90 days, thus, there is every reason to be considered early carrots, although in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation, the variety by maturity dates is assigned to the fifth group, that is, it is recognized as mid-season.
Tushon variety is regarded as carrots, recommended for commercial rather than garden cultivation, therefore, the indicators of its productivity are reduced to an industrial scale. So, according to official data, from one hectare you can remove from 29.6 to 41.6 tons of root crops.
Early carrot varieties also include:
Turning to the experience of the owners of personal homestead farms growing Tushon in their plots, we can say that from 4 to 6 kg of such carrots will grow on one square meter (depending on weather conditions and quality of care).
Pros and cons of the variety
- The advantages of the variety are:
- early ripening;
- excellent taste characteristics;
- the correct form and beautiful appearance of root crops;
- the ability to consume root crops without prior treatment;
- very high productivity;
- unpretentiousness, lack of difficulties with growing;
- good resistance to underlying diseases;
- lack of tendency to cracking and flaccidity;
- small commodity losses in the process of growing and harvesting (not higher than 7-12%).
- Tushon's Cons:
- like all early ripe vegetables, this carrot is not suitable for long-term storage;
- due to the elongated shape, thin peel and delicate pulp, the root crop’s transportability is quite low - they not only get damaged when they hit each other, but also break very often.
From the point of view of agricultural cultivation, Tushon does not differ fundamentally from other varieties of carrots, however, in order to get really high yields, some important rules for a gardener should be known and must be observed.
The variety is quite unpretentious, so even a gardener without experience can grow it without any problems.
Lighting and location
The first rule when growing carrots is intensive lighting, the second is open space (the bed should be well ventilated).
In addition, a lowland or a site with groundwater flow close to the surface is not suitable for this culture. However, in this case, a good way out can be a high garden.
Did you know? Beta-carotene - a purple-red pigment, a precursor of vitamin A, which is essential for healthy eyes and skin, was first isolated from carrots, in which this substance is especially abundant, and it was thanks to it that it got its name: in Latin, carrot is called "carota" , hence the English "carrot".
For an even distribution of moisture and nutrients in the soil, the place to place the beds should be aligned - the natural bias, if any, should be minimized.
In addition, when choosing a place for carrots, it is important to follow the rules of crop rotation. There are plants after which this culture should not be planted, since they extract the same substances from the soil as carrots, and have common pests with it, and, conversely, those who are an excellent predecessor for Tushon. More about this in the table:
|Bad predecessors:||Good predecessors:|
The composition of the soil Tushon makes very high demands. She must be:
- fertile (humus content of at least 4%);
- light (weight per square centimeter - 0.65 g);
- well drained;
- by reaction - neutral or slightly acidic (pH in the range of 5.6–7.0).
The ideal form and structure of Tushon can be achieved by growing it on loam or sandstone.In dense clay soil, carrots grow crooked and shallow.
When to start landing
Determining the optimal time for planting seeds, you need to look for a middle ground between two important rules:
- if you hurry with sowing, the seeds frozen in the cold ground can then not germinate for a long time or, conversely, after hatching, then they risk dying due to return frosts;
- too late planting leads to the fact that the soil has time to dry after snowmelt, which, combined with an increase in solar activity, inhibits the development of young shoots (in addition, the main value of early ripe vegetables is precisely in obtaining the crop as quickly as possible, therefore, never follows).
Tushon refers to varieties intended for planting in spring
Carrot seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of + 3 ... + 4 ° С, however, it is better to plant them a little later, when the soil at a depth of 3-4 cm is warmed up to at least + 7 ° С, and the air temperature rises to + 12 ... + 15 ° in the afternoon WITH. In the Central region, this period may occur in early or mid-April.
Did you know? Our ancestors believed that the time for planting carrots is easiest to determine by the beginning of the flowering of violets and aspen.
How to prepare seeds
In order for the seeds of Tushon to germinate faster and give more friendly shoots, they must be prepared before planting. This process can include up to six stages, namely:
- Soak. Seed material is placed in a bag of gauze or soft tissue and placed in warm water for 24–36 hours. During this time, the seeds should be washed 3-4 times with warm water to prevent the development of fermentation processes.
- Disinfection. Pre-soaked (in no case dry) seeds for 10-15 minutes are placed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, boric acid or hydrogen peroxide. This precaution allows you to kill the harmful spores of fungi present on the seeds.
- Hardening. Soaked and swollen, but not yet sprouted seeds, without removing them from a moistened bag, are placed in the refrigerator (on the lower shelf) for up to 7 days. Alternating placement of seeds in cold and heat gives an even better effect - for example, at night the seeds remain in the refrigerator, and are kept at room temperature during the day.
- Germination. It is necessary to leave the soaked seeds on a damp surface covered with a film, and periodically spray. After the appearance of the first roots, dry a little and immediately plant.
- Biostimulation. It can be combined with soaking by adding special growth stimulants to the water, for example, Epin or sodium humate.
- Sparging. The procedure involves the saturation of seeds with oxygen. It is carried out using a compressor for the aquarium, which is placed in a jar of water, the seeds are pre-laid there. The process lasts from 18 to 24 hours, during which time the water is changed 1-2 times.
It is not necessary to carry out all these procedures with seeds, but experienced gardeners strongly recommend that you complete at least the first two.
How to plant
It is best to plant Tushon in rows, the distance between which should be at least 30 cm.
After loosening the soil on the future bed and marking the required number of rows on it, with the help of a sap or other suitable tool, dig grooves with a depth of not more than 2 cm and pour plenty of water on them.
When the water is absorbed, you can start laying the seeds, while trying don't sow them too close togetherotherwise, during subsequent thinning, a significant part of the seed material will be lost. In addition, neighboring plants may begin to be entwined with roots, and those that remain in the ground will suffer in the process of extracting extra specimens. It is optimal to spread the seeds into the ground at a distance of 1-2 cm from each other.
A way to simplify the procedure for planting carrots is pre-sticking seeds on toilet paper tapesgreased with brewed starch paste. The paper is then laid in the grooves with the seeds up and covered: soft organic material will not interfere with the germination of the roots and will quickly decompose.
Another method to simplify the planting of small carrot seeds involves their mixing with sand in a ratio of 2: 1. In this case, there is no need to choose each seed for laying in the soil, in addition, sand is an additional baking powder for the soil.
You can fill in the grooves with the help of glanders with garden soil, which was extracted when they were excavated, but it is better to use humus or compost for these purposes.
The rows filled with pegs and marked with pegs should be watered again and, if necessary, covered to accelerate the process of germination by film or agrotechnical fiber.
Further planting care
Even with an absolutely correct planting, Tushon seedlings begin to appear amicably only after 15–20 days (however, if the seeds have passed the procedure of germination and bubbling, this period can be halved).
After emergence, the shelter should be removed, then, after about 2 weeks, carry out the first thinning. As a result of this procedure, a distance of at least 30–40 mm should be ensured between the individual seedlings. After a couple of weeks, it is advisable to thin out the garden a second time, increasing the distance between root crops to 8 cm.
Important! Non-thinned carrots slow is growing, forms poor-quality root crops, therefore, neither regret removing the extra seedlings nor delaying with this procedure should be made.
Further planting care includes watering, top dressing and, if necessary, treatment for diseases or pests.
In order for root crops to have enough space for full development, carrot crops should be thinned out
Fertilizer and watering
Compliance with the irrigation regime is one of the main conditions that allow you to grow a good Tushon crop. The humidification of the bed should be regular, uniform and plentiful enough so that the water goes into the ground by at least 20 cm.
Carrots always need wateringhowever, two periods are most critical - the beginning of the growing season, when weak and not developing root system shoots easily die even from the slightest drought, and the final stage of root crops ripening, when the aerial part of the bush has already stopped growing. However a few days before harvesting, watering the beds should be completely stopped - This will improve the taste characteristics of carrots and slightly extend its shelf life.
Important! Frequent, but sparse watering, which does not allow moistening the root crop to the very nose, leads to the fact that carrots are covered with plentiful hairs throughout the area. In addition, in such cases, root crops often grow in an irregular, ugly form.
As for top dressing, if the soil on the bed where Tushon was planted was initially quite fertile, early ripe root crops can be grown without additional fertilizers.
Moreover, carrots are a vegetable that can very strongly accumulate nitrates in root crops, therefore excess nitrogen fertilizers (including manure) are absolutely not needed by this culture. However, if there is not enough nitrogen in the soil, root crops are formed small and clumsy, so it is important to ensure a balanced soil composition exactly at the time of planting (it is best to prepare and fertilize the bed in the fall).
To increase productivity during the growing season, Tushon can be fed 1-2 times with complex potassium-phosphorus fertilizer (AVA, Autumn, bone meal, potassium monophosphate) or separately with preparations containing these two elements (for example, superphosphate and potassium salt).
Did you know? The world's longest carrots was grown by Simon Smith, a resident of Leicestershire, UK. The size of this root crop was 1 m 20 cm.
Fans of organic farming should pay attention to such a concept as organic top dressing. You can stimulate the growth of carrots with wood ash (a natural source of potassium), as well as infusions or decoctions of chamomile, nettle, burdock.
During the formation of the root crop, the plant makes the most demands on the content of potassium in the soil: wood ash can become its source
Pest and disease control in the garden
Various pests are very fond of sweet and juicy Tushon. The most common ones are:
The most unpleasant thing is that many of the parasites mentioned above (for example, wireworm, carrot fly, scoops, bear) eat not the leaf part of the plant, but its roots, so it is very difficult to visually detect traces of their presence in the garden. You need to focus on the general condition of the seedlings - usually when the root crops are eaten, they wilt, slow down growth, sometimes turn yellow.
Pests can be controlled with various insecticides, and preparations that are effective for terrestrial insects are usually powerless against those that live in the soil. For example, for spraying, you can use:
- "Confidor Maxi."
Against soil pests, such agents as Bezar, Bazudin, Mukhoyed or Provotoks are used (depending on the specific instructions of the manufacturer, they are laid out on the ground or bred with water and watered over the garden bed).
In order to protect Tushon from pests preventively, experienced gardeners carry out two sequential treatments of the beds in the early stages of the growing season:
- In the phase of 4-6 leaves - the drug "ATO BEETLE" (3 ml per bucket of water).
- In a phase of 6–9 leaves - the drug "Fas" (4 ml per bucket of water).
It must be borne in mind, however, that the first of the mentioned insecticides is non-toxic to humans, but deadly to bees, while the second, on the contrary, is almost harmless to bees, but dangerous to humans.
Important! You can prevent or reduce the damage of carrots by pests by planting nearby onions or garlic.
Among the most common diseases that can affect carrots, mention should be made of:
Traditionally fungal diseases treated or prevented with fungicides, however, their use on early ripe Tushon is highly undesirable: such drugs are almost always highly toxic. The best prevention of carrot diseases is proper agricultural technology - compliance with the watering and top dressing regime, removal of weeds and organic residues from the beds, seed dressing before planting, etc.
If the signs of the disease still made themselves felt, to save carrots, you can use modern biofungicides that are harmless to the environment and do not affect the quality of the crop. As examples of such funds, “Fitosporin-M”, “Trichodermin”, “Mikosan”, “Gliocladin”, “Guapsin” can be mentioned.
Harvesting and storage
Harvest time must be calculated on the basis of the ripening dates inherent in the variety - approximately 80 days after emergence. Do not overdo carrots in the ground, since this greatly reduces the quality of root crops, contributes to their cracking and damage to fungal infections. It is necessary to focus on the fact that by mid-July the harvest of Tushon should be harvested.
The fact that Tushon has matured can be judged by the appearance of the outlet - the tips of the leaves of the bush begin to turn yellow. A test root crop, extracted from the ground, should have small white roots near the spout itself - this indicates that it has reached biological maturity.
The long roots of Tushon easily break, so from the land of them do not pull out, but dig outwhile using a shovel, as the forks increase the risk of damage to the thin skin.Fresh carrots should be immediately cut off the tops at a height of about 2 cm from the base and very carefully shake off the ground with your hands.
Important! 4–5 days before digging up the carrots, it is recommended to process the bed with copper sulfate (5% solution). This procedure promotes the promotion of nutrients from the leaves to the root crop and protects the carrots from fungi that can infect it as a result of accidental damage when digging.
It’s better to eat Tushon for food or use it for cooking various preparations immediately after extraction from the earth - by the end of summer, the harvest should be fully realized.
Tushon is a high-yielding early-ripe variety of carrots with excellent taste characteristics. Having planted such seeds in the garden in early spring, by mid-summer you can get selected, beautiful, juicy and sweet root vegetables, which are the best suited for the immediate satisfaction of the body's needs for vitamins and other useful substances. However, Tushon is not suitable for long-term storage, therefore it is better to grow it in small quantities and along with other later varieties.
Network user reviews
ADVANTAGES: rich in carotene
For carrots, I take the central garden in my area. I do it in the sunlit area. I use light composted land for planting. Every year I sow the seeds of carrots of the Gavrish variety "Carrot Tushon". This variety is of medium ripeness. I dig up the first root crops after 3 months from the moment of sowing the seeds in the soil. In carrots of this variety leaves form in the form of a high rosette. Ripe carrots have the shape of a cylinder. The end of this variety is dull. In the technical stage of ripeness, the root crop acquires a bright orange color. I like this variety for its yield and root crop size. The largest instance I had was at least 22 centimeters. Root crops are quite large, weighing about 170 grams. I like this carrot for its juiciness, brightness of color and excellent taste. This root crop has virtually no core. I practically do not water the carrots. I do this only at the seedling stage. Then it pours rain. The roots themselves seek moisture and penetrate deep into the soil. Carrots of this variety are universal. I eat it fresh, add it when cooking, add it when making canned food. In addition, the Tushon variety is stored for a long time. I keep root vegetables in the sand. Therefore, in the spring I still eat carrots. It is well preserved in the sand, remains fresh and elastic.