Features planting and care for cherries "Zagoryevskaya"
It is difficult to imagine a personal plot without the presence of a cherry tree in it. It not only pleases with exquisitely delicious fruits, but also gives the surrounding space a certain charm. At the same time, not every kind of cherry is suitable for solving the assigned tasks: plant compactness, winter hardiness, palatability, etc. The best option, in this case, is the choice of Zagoryevskaya cherries.
The All-Russian Selection Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery of the Russian Agricultural Academy, where this variety was bred, is located in Moscow, on the site of the former village of Zagorye. It is from here that the name of the plant went.
The crossing of the varieties Lyubskaya (self-fertile) and Shirpotrebnaya Chernaya (small-growing) yielded the expected result - a new variety of cherries specially created for growing in the climatic conditions of the north-western regions. The variety is not included in the State Register, and nevertheless, it is popular both among amateur gardeners and professionals.
Like all fruit trees, varieties of cherries have their differences not only in biological terms, but also in agricultural farming. To obtain the desired results, you need to know the maximum information about the selected form and deliberately apply it in the cultivation process.
Biological features and characteristics
Cherry is a subgenus of Plum and belongs to the family Rosaceae (Pink). Let us consider in more detail the distinguishing features of the Zagorskaya cherry from other varieties of cherry trees.
Did you know? 100 grams of cherries, in their action, are similar to one tablet of aspirin.
Garden cherries are divided into two categories:
- bushy (plant height not more than 3 meters);
- tree-like (tree growth reaches up to 8 meters).
This variety belongs to the bushy version and is a fairly compact bush 2.5-3 meters high with a spreading, not very dense crown. Thickness of foliage is not peculiar for this variety, due to which, the probability of the occurrence of certain diseases is practically eliminated.
The bark of the plant is characterized by a cherry-brown color with the presence of horizontal gray dashes (lentils) on it. The leaves are ordinary, dark green, 4-8 centimeters long, with a weakly pronounced serrated edge. Cherry flowers are white, umbrellas are collected in a small size and open a little earlier than the leaves. Fruiting occurs on annual shoots.
The berry is quite large, in taste and color it resembles cherries, and has its own specific signs:
- average weight - 3.5-4 grams;
- shape - oval-round;
- skin color - ocher-red, saturated, with shine, upon reaching ripeness acquires a slightly brown hue;
- pulp - dense, tender, juicy, fragrant;
- juice - dark red, thick;
- taste - sweet and sour, dessert, with the aroma of chocolate;
- the bone is spherical, easily removable, small in size.
Assessment of fetal tasting on a five-point grid - 4.5 points.
Cherry "Zagoryevskaya" is a self-fertile culture. This means that the fruit ovary is carried out with the help of its own flowers, without cross pollination.
But nevertheless, the presence of other low-growing cherries (Lyubskaya, Rubinovaya, Maksimovskaya, Vladimirskaya, etc.) on the plot of the plot favorably affects the yield and quality of the fruits of the selected variety, since self-fertile varieties produce better fruit neighborhood with other pollinators. The plant blooms in late May.
Zagoryevsky cherry is mid-season. From the formation of ovaries to full ripening, a two-month period of time passes.Technical ripeness of berries occurs in late July or early August, depending on weather conditions and the region of growth.
Fruiting culture enters 3-4 years after planting and is characterized by average productivity. Subsequently, with the age of the cherry tree, the crop grows. Using an adult plant, using appropriate and proper care, you can collect up to 14-15 kg of a delicious product.
According to the manufacturer, from 1 ha of plantations it is possible to obtain a cherry harvest in the range of 10-14 tons. It is important to note that the berries are firmly held on a short stalk and therefore are not prone to shedding. Such a positive feature allows you to harvest in full, without any loss.
The variety has an average winter hardiness and withstands frosts down to -20 ° C. In severe frosts, freezing of flower buds is possible, the root system needs shelter. It happens that spring back frosts damage already blossoming flowers, and this entails considerable damage to the future crop (up to 90%).
Based on this, during flowering, with a sharp decrease in ambient temperature to 0 ° C and below, it is necessary to carry out the following measures:
- carry out irrigation (sprinkling);
- arrange fumigation of the garden with smoke;
- to cover the plant with any non-heavy material (agrofiber, film, etc.).
Did you know? Cherry tree is very hardy, it grows in the wild, even in the Himalayas.
The excellent taste of the berries deserves a high tasting score (4.5 points), and at the same time, widespread recognition as a wonderful dessert treat. Compotes, jam, jams, jellies, juices, cherry liqueurs and liquors are prepared from the fruits.
Fruits are used fresh, dried, canned, frozen. Cherry berries, leaves, twigs, seeds, roots, prepared in the form of tinctures and decoctions, are used in folk medicine for medicinal purposes.
The bush-like tree, due to its excellent aesthetic appearance and compactness, is very popular in arranging landscape design. Plantings of this variety are often used for landscaping parks and squares.
To grow a good, strong tree that will please you with a beautiful view and an excellent harvest, you must, without fail, adhere to the basic agricultural techniques.
Rules for planting cherry seedlings
Cherry varieties "Zagoryevskaya" are undemanding in cultivation, and nevertheless, a competent approach to growing fruit trees is still necessary. Consider the key agricultural criteria that a gardener needs to know.
Planting time depends on the habitat and the severity of climatic conditions. On the southern lands, afforestation is much better done in autumn, in the middle lane - in spring and autumn. During harsh winters in the northwestern regions, trees are planted in spring.
It should be noted that the seedlings at the time of planting should be at rest: in the spring - the time before the buds swell, and in the fall - after the leaves fall. You can not plant young plantations in the cold, frozen ground. For a good rooting of the root system, the absence of low temperatures is necessary.
For the good growth of the cherry tree, the place of its growth plays an important role. It should be:
- Well lit, with plenty of light.
- Protected from strong and cold winds.
- With light, sandy or loamy, well-drained, breathable, fertile soil.
- Without stagnation of water, with a deep level of groundwater (lowlands are excluded).
- Not to have apple trees and other tall trees in the neighborhood that oppress the cherry tree.
Process and scheme
Planting is carried out as follows:
- Dig a landing pit with a diameter of 80 centimeters and a depth of half a meter, laying the surface layer of the earth (removing about half the bayonet of a shovel) to the side, for subsequent mixing with organic and mineral fertilizers, wood ash.
- In the recess install a peg to fix the young tree.
- Pour the prepared nutrient composition into the hole with a cone, place a seedling on top, carefully spreading the roots.
- Pour the remaining soil mixture with emptiness around the trunk, slightly pressing down the soil and making sure that the root neck of the plant is at the level of the soil or 3-4 centimeters higher (the cherry does not tolerate a deep landing).
- The trunk of the culture should be on the north side of the peg and stand strictly upright.
- Pour 1-3 buckets of water into the location of the tree stand, mulch with peat, sawdust, leaves.
- Tie a tree to a support.
After planting, a young crop feels the need for regular watering. Trees do not plant close together. The optimal planting scheme for the small-growing Zagoryevskaya variety is the standard 2.5 x 2 m, that is, the distance between the trees should be 2 meters, and the row spacing should be 2.5 meters.
During the cultivation of this species, there are some nuances that need to be paid attention to ensure proper and proper care of the plantings.
Important! When buying a seedling with an open root system, it is recommended, before planting, to put it in water (preferably with a root growth stimulator) for 6-8 hours - for the regeneration of root tissues.
Variety Care Features
In home gardens, this variety of bush cherry grows up to 15-17 years, but with a caring attitude to the plant, the life span can be extended.
Watering and loosening
The plant is highly drought tolerant. The frequency of irrigation depends on weather conditions. Watering is mandatory with prolonged drought during filling and ripening of berries. Water consumption per planting is 2-3 buckets, depending on the age of the tree, while moisture should penetrate the ground by 0.3-0.4 meters.
Stagnation of water in the soil should be avoided. After the soil has dried, it is necessary to loosen the upper layer of the earth around the barrel circle, with a depth of about half a bayonet of a shovel (10-15 centimeters). You cannot use a deeper digging due to the likelihood of damage to the root system.
During the first year of growth, seedlings do not feel the need for fertilizing. During the subsequent vegetation, nitrogen fertilizers are applied in two doses: before flowering of the tree and after it (after 2 weeks), using urea or ammonium nitrate. During the ripening of berries, complex mineral fertilizers are used.
In autumn (September or October), when the foliage begins to turn yellow, potassium and phosphoric inorganic compounds (potassium sulfate, superphosphate) are added, which contribute to a better wintering of the cherry tree. It should be noted that before starting feeding, it is necessary to irrigate the site.
Important! If too little mineral fertilizer is applied, the cherry begins to lose fertility and a state of general depression of the plant is observed.
Cropping and shaping the crown
After planting the plant, you should immediately shorten the shoots to a third of their length. From this begins the formation of the crown of a cherry tree. Preventive pruning is carried out in early spring: dried and damaged branches are removed. The variety does not have a thickened crown, but if there are branches growing inside the bush, they must be removed.
1 - The first post-landing pruning; 2 - Further preventive pruning.
Cherry, which grows in warm areas, tolerates winter very well, and growing in areas with more severe cold climates, it needs additional measures to protect it from freezing. Work is carried out in late autumn.
To protect the root system, it is recommended to insulate the tree trunk for the winter with lapnik, leaves, straw, humus or other organics. The mulch layer should be at least 15 centimeters. The trunk of the tree should be wrapped with covering material as high as possible, or insulated with lapnik.
Diseases and Pests
Cherries, unfortunately, are prone to fungal diseases and the resistance of Zagoryevskaya to them is average.
With high humidity, the likelihood of such diseases increases:
In all cases, the first step in the fight against the disease is the removal of the affected parts of the plant, the collection and destruction of diseased fruits. Pests also annoy the plant: cherry aphids and weevils, larvae of the mucous sawfly, caterpillars of the shoot moth, hawthorn.
You can fight parasitic insects with the help of infusion of potato and tomato tops, or, using chemical means - wide-spectrum insecticides: Actellik, Corsair, Karbofos, Rovikurt, etc.
Ongoing preventive measures will provide cherry trees with favorable vegetative conditions and will help prevent diseases to a greater extent.
Important! To make sure that the cherry is sick with moniliosis, it is enough to cut off the affected branch and examine the section. The presence of black rings on it indicates the presence of this disease.
To do this, you need:
- In the case of a cherry disease, carefully scrape and discard damaged branches, leaves and berries of a plant.
- Trimming affected tree elements only on dry, windless days to avoid the spread of spores of fungi and viruses.
- Weed timely weeds in the near-stem zone.
- The tree stamp should be protected from various injuries.
- Whitewash in early spring and autumn - to prevent frostbite and sunburn.
- With the advent of gum in the culture, immediately treat it with Bordeaux liquid to prevent the spread of fungal diseases.
- Carry out a permanent inspection of cherry trees.
With proper care and timely prevention, a healthy tree has high immunity and can successfully resist all kinds of diseases and pests.
Video: How to cure cherries from diseases
Harvesting and storage
Cherry berries do not have ripening properties. Fruits picked early will be tasteless and sour. Harvesting should be carried out precisely at the time of ripening. The considered variety of cherries is not prone to shed ripened fruits, and this facilitates harvesting, which can be done in several stages.
It is better to pluck cherries with the stalk so as not to damage the pulp of the fruit and extend their shelf life. If the berries are needed for quick cooking or canning, then they can be picked without cuttings. It is not difficult to pick fruit from a stunted bush-like tree Zagoryevskaya - it’s easy and convenient.
Find out also
There are several ways to store berries:
- keep in a cool, well-ventilated area (up to 10 ° C), no more than 10 days;
- freeze (product preservation may last a year);
- apply dry heat treatment - drying in the oven at a temperature not exceeding 55 ° C. Dried cherries, placed in glass containers, are carried out in a cool place. Savings time for treats - 12-18 months;
- use conservation methods. Different types of blanks are perfectly stored until next season.
Variety of cherries "Zagoryevskaya" is not pretentious during cultivation and does not require complex care and costs than other fruit trees.Possessing great potential and a resource of positive qualities, the tree is loved and demanded in many personal plots. Compact, not very noticeable in winter, with the advent of spring it will flourish in the garden with white lush color and will generously give burgundy fragrant berries in mid-summer.