Detailed characteristics and features of growing apple trees Snow Calvil
Winter apples perfectly replenish the supply of vitamins and energize. And the best winter apple is considered to be the Snow Calville variety. It is undemanding in care, high yielding, and has fruits of excellent quality. Read about the features of the variety and the technique of growing it in the review.
Breeding History and Variety Breeding Region
The history of the variety dates back several hundred years. The fruits of the White Winter Calvilla (La Calville blanc d'hiver) were served to the table of King Louis XIII of France back in the 1600s. Presumably his homeland is Normandy, a province of France. Spreading throughout Europe, White Calvil laid the foundation for more than a dozen varieties. Now nameless Ukrainian breeders have also contributed to variety formation. The variety they created is considered a variety of folk selection and is called Snow Calvil. It is entered in the register of Ukrainian varieties in 1928.
Did you know? Unlike many apple trees, Snow Calville can propagate by seed. Most modern varieties are obtained by pollination of some trees with pollen of others and are hybrids. They can be propagated by cuttings or layering. But impossible by seeds.
The popularity of the variety is confirmed by many popular names: Snow Calvin, Snow White, Calville White and others. This is a rather late tree, the fruits of which ripen by the end of autumn. Calvilla apple is slightly irregular in shape, slightly ribbed, pale yellow, acquiring a small pink blush under the sun, has excellent taste. Its yellowish flesh is tender, thin, juicy, sweet and fragrant.
Description and characteristics of the variety
This fine winter apple variety is not only highly decorative, it is also not sensitive to most pests and diseases. The variety is equally well suited for industrial, farm or amateur gardening.Trio Calville on a branch of an apple tree
The main characteristics of the variety:
- appointment: dessert;
- tree: winter-hardy, very productive with large long branches, fruiting starts at 3 years of age;
- growth energy: high;
- flowering: April;
- harvest time: October;
- apple storage: more than 5 months, from November to March.
Important! If you intend to store Snow Calville until spring, then avoid too low temperatures in the store. They significantly reduce the aroma of apples.
Initially, the variety was actively used to obtain apple cider. Modern calvil is used fresh, as well as in compotes, pies and pastries. Baked apples, prepare drinks. Jelly of them is considered a reference.
The tree is quite large. Its height can reach 5-6 m. It is characterized by long branches and a rather spreading crown. Shoots are formed very actively, which reduces fruiting. Therefore, unlike other varieties, pruning Snow Calvilla need to be given special attention.
Quite large irregularly shaped fruits are usually slightly flattened and ribbed at the end. Their incomparable shade of pale green and light yellow or pale yellow color may acquire a blush if the fruits are brightly lit by the sun. Gourmets claim that the flavor of Snow Calvilla includes notes of raspberries and violets, and the taste almost melts in your mouth.
General characteristics of the fruit:
- weight: 120 g;
- size: medium;
- peel: thin, glossy;
- pulp texture: very juicy, melting, white or pale cream color;
- taste: sweet and sour with a strong aroma;
- tasting score: 4.6 out of 5 points.
The timing of flowering and fruiting
Apple blossoms in April and coincide in terms of Golden Delishes plus 2 days.Bred by Ukrainian breeders the variety is self-fertile and does not need pollinators. But the old French Calville demanded a pollinator partner. Also take into account that the color formed on apple trees does not turn into fruits in 100% of cases. With a high probability, this indicator fluctuates around 60–70% even for the best varieties.
Therefore, it is believed that the presence of another tree nearby can increase productivity. And Golden Delicious is perfect for this role. Apples can be picked in September, but they can perfectly ripen and gain sweets until October, inclusive. In orchards with watering, the harvest from adult apple trees reaches a weight of 250 c / ha. But you can meet these apple trees in the steppe zone with poor irrigation. There, the yield will not exceed 120 kg / ha. A good advantage of the variety is that it bears fruit annually.The apple tree begins to bear fruit from the age of 4
The variety is designed for fairly mild winters, with an air temperature not lower than –15 ° С. Therefore, it can be grown no further than Central Russia, as well as in Ukraine, Moldova, the Baltic States, Belarus. The variety is sensitive to aphids and scab, is not susceptible to bacterial and fungal diseases; prefer protected from the wind places to avoid premature fall of the fruit.
Did you know? In old French treatises they wrote that the apple tree can only be grown in high hills (about 450–490 m above sea level). So its fruits become tastier.
Pros and possible disadvantages of the variety
- Grade advantages:
- annual fruiting;
- high productivity;
- frost resistance up to –21 ° С;
- resistance to drought;
- excellent appearance of the fruit and tasting characteristics;
- high commercial properties: transportability, and shelf life of more than 5 months;
- a wide range of uses of apples - in the production of alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, in water desserts and preparations for the winter, fresh.
- The disadvantage of the variety is:
- moderate disease resistance, as in other old varieties;
- if you buy a tree not from a nursery, and are not sure of its self-pollination - plant a nearby pollinator tree (this is a fairly common variety in Europe and includes more than 30 different Calviles that are not too different from each other externally, but the characteristics may have different )
Agriculture Tree Planting
Snow Calville is often grown commercially. To achieve high productivity, you need to plant a tree in accordance with the climate acceptable for the apple tree, the requirements for soil, sun, moisture. Tree spacing, pollination, fertilizer application, irrigation, pruning and thinning are also critical to maximize long-term yields.Apples of this variety form a lot of buds, some of them are cut off so that apples grow largerThis variety thrives even in cool and humid climates. But he needs plenty of sunlight to get the most attractive and brightly colored fruits. The required length of daylight hours is 6-7 hours. A tree can thrive in soil with an acid level close to 7 pH, provided that it is well-drained and not swampy. Maximum yields are achieved on fertile sandy soils and loams.
Optimal landing dates
The planting time of apple trees depends on the climate. In early spring (in April), landing is carried out in regions with cold winters: starting from USDA zone 7 (minimum winter temperature –17 ° C) and lower. In zones from 8 and above, trees can be planted both in spring and autumn (until October). Also, spring planting is recommended for non-winter-hardy varieties. Such trees tolerate frost worse and can be damaged.
How to choose seedlings for planting?
Undoubtedly, the quality of planting material is extremely important for future crops. To do this, he must be developed and healthy. The selected seedling must have:
- age 2 years;
- 5 and more developed branches;
- healthy, without damage and defects, partially lignified trunk;
- young bark, if rubbed, the wood under it will be healthy and white;
- the roots are developed, on the cut - white and fibrous;
- the buds are not full.
How to choose and prepare a place for landing
Begin with a thorough plowing of the field with a depth of at least 50 cm. In this case, all weeds must be completely removed. Pip in about 20 tons of rotted manure per hectare and loosen the ground again. If a spring planting is planned, then in order to equalize the level of acidity, farmers add lime to the soil in the fall (1 ton per hectare).
If we are talking about planting one apple tree in a private garden, then it’s enough to dig a plot on which the tree will grow and prepare a planting pit, and to bring manure directly into it. Landing begins with digging a hole with a diameter of 0.5-0.6 m. Its depth should be the same. If the entire plot of the future garden was not fertilized, then you need to mix a bucket of rotted manure with soil and bring it into the pit.The seedling also needs to be prepared. Its roots are soaked in water for 2-3 hours. Nurseries supply them with "empty roots". Such soaking will fill them with water and facilitate survival. Then the roots are dipped in clay mash with copper sulfate. This will protect the seedling from contact with soil pathogens.
- In the center, set the stake to tie the tree.
- Center the apple tree.
- Add soil, starting from the edge and moving towards the center.
- When half the hole is full, water the tree.
- Add soil and compact it.
- Check that the roots are well covered by the ground, and that the junction of the scion and stock is 5–7 cm above the ground.
- Tie the apple tree with a soft cloth to the peg.
Video: instructions for planting an apple tree
After the apple trees are planted, they need care throughout the year. They need to be watered to avoid drought, to feed, trim and form a crown, as well as to carry out garden cleaning and take preventive measures against pests of apple trees and diseases. Variety Snow Calville is quite unpretentious, therefore, it requires the implementation of only generally accepted measures.
Important! Apple trees need bees for pollination and fruiting. In commercial apple farms, placing 3 beehives per hectare of orchard will ensure maximum pollination.
Loosening and weed control
Weed control is not as easy as it seems. The easiest way is to walk through the garden after watering and remove weeds manually or with the help of a garden hoe. But during the growth, plant roots, including weeds, accumulate nitrogen from the soil. By removing weed, you remove nitrogen from the soil. This is not too rational.Therefore, the technique of sowing appeared in the aisles of gardens of ground cover crops. If you sow alfalfa, a carpet of healthy grass will inhibit weeds, roots loosen the soil, improve aeration and collect nitrogen. And in the fall, when digging them, they dig in the soil, thereby fertilizing it.
Did you know? China grows more apples than any other country in the world. Its products — this is 48% of global production.
Feeding and watering
A young apple tree needs a lot of water. It is necessary for the development of roots, leaves and fruiting. In regions where it rarely rains, it is useful to water the apple trees about once a week from late spring to autumn (May to October). They increase water supply from July to August, when it is too hot and the water evaporates quickly. A layer of mulch around the roots of the tree will help maintain moisture, prevent soil compaction, and inhibit weed growth.There is an easy way to check if you need to water the apple trees. To do this, under the crown, carefully make a hole about 25 cm deep, a little earth is gathered from it. Squeeze the soil, and then unclench your fist. If the soil crumbles in the hand, then the tree needs watering. The Earth maintains a rounded shape - it means that there is enough moisture. Leaf growth, flowering and fruiting occur due to the transformation of nutrients obtained from the soil, under the influence of solar energy. These substances are potassium and nitrogen. And for the development of roots you need a third substance - phosphorus. Its role is especially important in the early stages of tree growth. Of the additional, but not so significant trace elements, the plant needs zinc, boron, magnesium, manganese, calcium. In large quantities, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are needed. Therefore, in the composition of any fertilizer indicate how much they are present. If you make organic fertilizing, then the remaining elements will be present in them in an amount sufficient for the tree.In order for the foliage to develop well, you need to be the first to apply nitrogen monofertilizers or complex mixtures, which include nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus.Ripe apple trees that began bearing fruit need more fertilizer than young ones. An average fruiting apple tree needs 270 g of nitrogen, and a seedling no more than 60 g. The usual feeding scheme is to add 1–4 kg of fertilizer per year under one tree. The ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in them should be 12-12-12 for a non-bearing tree and 11-15-15 for a bearing tree. Fertilize from March to July. Usually, 3 top dressings are done: before budding, at the flowering stage and during the formation of the ovaries. If it seems to you that the tree is getting insufficient nutrients, check the composition of the leaves of the laboratory.
It should be something like this:
- nitrogen: 2–2.4%;
- potassium: 1.1%;
- phosphorus: 0.1%
- calcium: 1%;
- magnesium: 0.25%.
Make sure that the tree has enough nutrients and can visually. In this case, you will need to measure the growth of the branches of the previous year. It should be 30-60 cm.
Video: feeding apple trees
Healthy adult apple trees are cut minimally - shorten the length of the branches. For a young apple tree, pruning is needed to stimulate fruiting, develop the crown, and shape it. The shape of the apple tree can be spherical, flat fan or V-shaped. There are advantages and disadvantages to choosing any form of crown. Recently, gardeners have preferred the V-shape, since it shows the highest yield and makes harvesting quite simple.
Important! Do not remove more than 25% of the branches within one year. This will negatively affect the health of the tree.
Trim adult fruiting trees to improve air circulation, maintain crown shape, optimize lighting, and remove dead, diseased or broken shoots, as well as intersecting branches. On thickened trees, yield decreases. In addition, remove branches that are located in relation to the trunk at an angle of more than 60 degrees. They will consume nutrients but will not bear fruit.Branches that are at an angle of 90 degrees to the trunk and slope down are also removed. They are more likely to break under the weight of apples at the end of the harvest. Pruned apple trees at rest. Trimming period: from November to March. The deadline is 2 weeks after the last soil freeze. Usually trim ends in February.
Video: crown formation of an apple tree
Preparing a tree for winter
As soon as the harvest ends, the garden is cleaned of weeds, foliage, carrion and begin to prepare for winter. To make the branches lignified, watering is stopped by autumn. For the same purpose, the last fertilizer application is performed no later than July. Dig the soil in the garden to reduce the population of wintering pests.
You will also need to complete the following activities:
- Place the mulch in the near-stem zone.It will serve as an insulating layer and will not allow the roots to freeze during frosts.
- Whiten the trunk to protect it from cracking during extremes of day and night temperatures in winter.
- Install fencing from the net around the trees, if there are animals that can damage the bark: hares and others.
Pest and Disease Control
Aphids, moth moths, ticks and thrips often attack apple trees. What is common to all is that they live on the underside of the leaves or in the crevices of the trunk, feed on the sap of the plants, damage the leaves and ovaries, cause twisting, yellowing and skeletonization of the leaves. Through damage to the leaves, various bacteria enter the tree.A method of controlling insects: spraying trees with insecticides before buds open, during bud opening and after flowering. Also, farmers set pheromone traps on the trees. These are constructions with a sticky substance inside, to which insects stick. The rate of trap placement is 1 per 100 apples. They are hung surrounded by fruits, but so that they hang from the outside of the crown.
Important! Do not spray during flowering. This will destroy the bees that pollinate the trees.
With regard to disease, then powdery mildew is the main disease caused by the fungus. This disease causes great economic damage to gardeners every year. Its causative agent is the fungus Podosphaera leucotricha. It affects flowers, leaves, and fruits, causing discoloration. A tree weakened by powdery mildew becomes more vulnerable to other diseases. For treatment, a solution of colloidal sulfur is used.Moniliosis is a bacterial disease which causes the fungus Erwinia amylovora. The fungus makes the leaves look like burnt. Usually affects young shoots. Such branches need to be pruned, but they only do this when the tree is at rest. Pruning a tree at a time when it is actively growing is more likely to spread the disease. If a disease is detected, the tree is treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid.Scab is a fungal disease caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis. It first affects the leaves, and then goes on to the ovaries and flowers and ends with the fruits. Initially, the leaves are covered with olive spots. They increase in size, darken and become dark brown. Apples affected by scab are unsuitable for sale. For processing use the preparations "Chorus", "Strobi", "Rayok". Processing is performed before or after flowering.
Snow Calvil is a variety with many advantages, characterized by unpretentiousness. It can be recommended both for commercial use and for personal farmsteads. If the trees are planted correctly and the basic care measures are followed, then you will always be provided with a harvest of delicious apples.